Modular Typesafe Programming



  • FAQ
  • Characteristics



  • Parallel Modula-2
  • Objective Modula-2


edit SideBar

Home Page

"Excellence is not an act, it is a habit." -- Aristotle

About Modula-2

Modula-2 is a modular, strongly typed, imperative system and application programming language. It facilitates seamless coordination between different components in large software projects, enforces strict safety policies and fosters programming discipline and use of best engineering practises. As a result, software written in Modula-2 is significantly safer and more reliable than software written in almost all other programming languages. Moreover, developers trained in Modula-2 tend to produce better quality than their peers.

Modula-2 was published in 1978 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETHZ) by Prof. Niklaus Wirth as a successor to his earlier language Pascal. Modula-2 is a derivative of the groundbreaking Mesa language developed at Xerox PARC, recast in the syntax of Pascal. The language enjoyed huge popularity throughout the 1980s until it was displaced by inferior designs due in part to a lack of a standard cross-vendor library but more importantly due to corporate lobbying in a quest for domination of the software market.

More recently, there has been a renewed interest in typesafe programming languages with strong enforcement of safety policies and discipline due to growing public concern about software security. This has also led to renewed interest in Modula-2. In recent years, much work has gone into a modernisation of the language, and implementation and maintenance of Modula-2 compilers.


The mission of is to increase awareness and knowledge of Modula-2 and its engineering principles by providing background information, language descriptions, syntax diagrams and EBNF grammars for the major Modula-2 dialects and domain specific supersets in a concise reference format.


  • PIM Modula-2, all editions of Wirth's classic Modula-2 language
  • ISO Modula-2, international standard IS-10514 from 1992, now lapsed
  • Modula-2 R10, a recent modernised revision based on Wirth's PIM4 by Kowarsch & Sutcliffe


  • Parallel Modula-2
  • Objective Modula-2

Site Status

This site is very much work in progress. All work is unpaid spare time effort. Please be patient while content is gradually added.

This Site is powered by Pm Wiki, available from Hosting by in Zurich, Switzerland.